Wednesday, February 1, 2017

The need for non-human primates in biomedical research, production and testing of products and devices Singeltary Submission

-----Original Message-----
From: Terry Singeltary <flounder9@verizon.net>
To: Sanco-Sc8-Secretariat <Sanco-Sc8-Secretariat@ec.europa.eu>
Sent: Tue, Jan 31, 2017 9:41 pm
Subject: The need for non-human primates in biomedical research, production and testing of products and devices


Greetings Scientific Committee on Health, Environmental and Emerging Risks (SCHEER) et al, 

I kind wish to comment on;


Request for an update to the scientific opinion on the need for non-human primates in biomedical research, production and testing of products and devices 


Scientific Committee on Health, Environmental and Emerging Risks (SCHEER) 

Request for an update to the scientific opinion on the need for non-human primates in biomedical research, production and testing of products and devices 

1. BACKGROUND Directive 2010/63/EU on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes1 , revising and replacing Directive 86/609/EEC, was adopted in 2010. It provides for controls of the use of live animals for scientific purposes including a systematic project evaluation and authorisation, sets binding standards for housing and care as well as for the education, training and competence of personnel both handling animals and supervising the experiments. 

Due to their genetic proximity to humans and highly developed social skills, the use of non-human primates in scientific procedures raises specific ethical questions and practical problems in terms of meeting their behavioural, environmental and social needs in a laboratory environment. Furthermore, the use of non-human primates for scientific purposes is of the highest concern to the citizens. As a result, the use of non-human primates attracted significant attention during the review of the Directive. 

In this context, it is useful to recall the 2002 Scientific Steering Committee, SSC, report2 highlighting the continuing need to use non-human primates in biomedical research. This was followed by the European Parliament declaration adopted in 2007 urging the Commission to 

(1) Make an end to the use of great apes and wild-caught monkeys in scientific experiments; 

(2) Establish a timetable for replacing with alternatives the use of all primates in scientific experiments. 

The Commission stated in its response3 to the EP that with the current scientific knowledge at the time a timetable with a fixed deadline to phase out all use of nonhuman primates in the area of biomedical research was not possible. However, the Commission also recognised that science is evolving rapidly in this field and novel technologies, such as genomics and computer modelling, were gradually emerging. 

As a result of these events, DG ENV requested the Scientific Committee on Health and Environmental Risks (SCHER) to issue an opinion on the status of alternatives for the use of non-human primates to facilitate an informed debate during the negotiations of the European Parliament and the Council on the revision of the Directive. 1 OJ L 276, 20.10.2010, p. 33–79 2 The Scientific Steering Committee: “The need for non-human primates in biomedical research”, statement adopted 4-5 April 2002: 


2 SCHER adopted its opinion in January 20094 . 

The SCHER opinion concurred with the Commission's view seeing no scientific reasons to support a discontinuation of the use of non-human primates in basic and applied research, or in the development and testing of new drugs. The opinion assessed the different areas in which nonhuman primates were being used. It examined areas for which partial or full replacement could be foreseen, and discussed the opportunities for the reduction and refinement of the use of non-human primates in areas where no replacement could be expected in medium or long term. 

Use of non-human primates in scientific procedures today 

There has been a decrease in the use of non-human primates compared to the situation in 2008. According to the latest available statistics of the EU from 20115 , around 11 million animals were used in scientific procedures in the EU. Of these, little more than 6,000 were non-human primates, compared to almost 10,000 in 2008. 

From a scientific point of view, the use of NHPs, at the time of the SCHER report, was considered essential for scientific progress in a number of important areas of disease biology, research and in safety testing, including: 

− Development of pharmaceuticals, in particular safety testing, to assess potential toxicity in animals to identify unacceptable adverse reactions in humans; 

− Understanding the pathophysiology of infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS, where the NHP was considered the only susceptible species and therefore the only useful animal model to study the disease, and to develop safe and effective vaccines and therapies; 

− Learning how complex brains of primates, humans included, are structured and function. Again, NHPs were considered the best model due to their close similarity to humans with regard to brain complexity and function; 

− Developing and testing xenotransplantation methodologies. This is reflected in the EU statistics which show that 56% of the non-human primates were used for the purposes of toxicological and other safety evaluations, 10% in the area of basic research and 23% in applied research, development and quality control of products and devices for human medicine and dentistry and for veterinary medicine. 

Need for an update 

A number of recommendations put forward by SCHER are reflected in the Directive. The Directive restricts the purposes for which non-human primates can be used, requires scientific justification that no other species can be used and requires more stringent inspections of establishment keeping or using non-human primates. An individual history file must be kept for each non-human primate and 4


5 11 481 521 

animals used in 2011 in EU27, COM(2013) 859 final 3 projects using non-human primates cannot to be authorised using simplified administrative procedures. 

In addition, any work involving the use of non-human primates is subject to a retrospective assessment at the end of the project. The use of wild-caught nonhuman primates for scientific purposes is prohibited and specific measures are required to move towards using only second (or higher) generation purpose-bred non-human primates. 

Finally, SCHER recommended that their position should be regularly reviewed in the light of alternative approaches that are constantly being developed. 

This is reflected in Recital 49 of the Directive that provides that "Technical and scientific advancements in biomedical research can be rapid, as can the increase in knowledge of factors influencing animal welfare. It is therefore necessary to provide for a review of this Directive. Such review should examine the possible replacement of the use of animals, and in particular non-human primates, as a matter of priority where it is possible, taking into account the advancement of science…." 

The legal obligation for the review is embedded in the first paragraph of Article 58: 

"The Commission shall review this Directive by 10 November 2017, taking into account advancements in the development of alternative methods not entailing the use of animals, in particular of non-human primates, and shall propose amendments, where appropriate." 

2. TERMS OF REFERENCE In view of the above, the Commission asks the SCHEER to issue a scientific opinion, updating the SCHER opinion of 13 January 2009, "The need for nonhuman primates in biomedical research, production and testing of products and devices", on: 

• The areas of research (fundamental, translational and applied) and testing of products and devices in which non-human primates continue to be used today; 

• The currently available possibilities by type of research or testing to replace their use either with methods not entailing the use of animals or by using other species of animals including those genetically altered; 

• The scientific viewpoint on when their use would no longer be necessary, considering the type of research and areas of testing with a view to the establishment of a specific phasing-out time-table where possible; 

• The opportunities for the reduction and refinement of their use in areas where no replacement can be foreseen in medium or long term as per the principles of the Three Rs6 ; 6 The Three Rs Principle (Replace, Reduce and Refine the use of animals in experiments) were first established in a book "The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique" by W.M.S. Russell and R.L. Burch in 1959 4 

• Identification of specific research areas where effort should be made to advance replacement, reduction and refinement of the use of non-human primates in scientific procedures. 

• Potential implications for biomedical research (e.g. immune based diseases, neuro-degenerative disorders, infectious diseases and serious diseases) should the use of non-human primates be banned in the EU. 

3. DEADLINE SCHEER's opinion would be appreciated by the end of December 2016 to contribute to the preparation of Commission Review of the Directive as provided by Article 58 of the Directive with a deadline of 10 November 2017. Annex: - SCHER Opinion, 13 January 2009 SCHER_o_110.pdf - Directive 2010/63/EU 2010-63-EU.pdf




Subject: re-The need for non-human primates in biomedical research, production and testing of products and devices




The need for non-human primates in biomedical research, production and testing of products and devices 



Greetings again Scientific Committee on Health, Environmental and Emerging Risks (SCHEER) et al, 

My comments on The need for non-human primates in biomedical research, production and testing of products and devices are as follows;

I am against the use of primates in scientific studies. because arguments will always persist on proof of human relation from any given study.

However, I am for Human use in place of Primates in these studies. I said it long ago. Death Row inmates. compensate the families and do the studies on these death row inmates. it could be the last good thing they ever do. just my opinion. ...

i remember the late great Dr. Gibbs at NIH whom studied transmissible spongiform encephalopathy prion disease his whole life, and was a great scientist, i remember him saying how bad he hated using chimps for research. he grew very close to the chimps, and it disturbed him greatly. i always thought we should use humans instead of chimps. i.e. death row inmates. expose them, study them, compensate their families. this would indeed put to end the controversy and excuse of 'oh, chimps are not humans, study does not hold water' type mentality. of course it would be a voluntary program.




A scientist’s change of heart Years later when author Richard Rhodes interviewed Clarence J. Gibbs for his 1997 book on the history of spongiform encephalopathies, he reports that Gibbs expressed distress over infecting chimpanzees with deadly diseases: “Joe Gibbs came to hate using chimpanzees for medical experiments. The bright, engaging primates were too human. Gibbs [purportedly] gave up inoculating chimpanzees with lethal diseases years ago—‘I just couldn’t do it anymore,’ he says today.” (13)


please see also ;

We are not being asked for a decision but I think that before we made one we should gain as much knowledge as we can. If we decided to proceed we would have to bear any criticisms for many years if there was an adverse view by scientists or­media. This should not be undertaken lightly. There is already some adverse comment here, I gather, on the pig experiment though that will subside.

The Gibbs' (as' distinct from Schellekers') study is somewhat different. We are merely supplying material for comparative studies in a laboratory with the greatest experience of human SEs in the world and it has been sanctioned by USDA (though we do not know for certain yet if chimpanzees specifically will be used). This would keep it at a lower profile than if we conducted such an experiment in the UK or Europe.

I consider we must have very powerful and defendable objectives to go beyond Gibbs' proposed experiments and should not initiate others just because an offer has been made.

Scientists have a responsibility to seek other methods of investigative research other than animal experimentation. At present no objective has convinced me we need to do research using Chimpanzees - a species in need of protection. Resisting such proposals would enable us to communicate that information to the scientist and the public should the need arise. A line would have been drawn.

CVO cc Dr T Dr B W A Little Dr B J Shreeve
i well remember what Ray Bradley stated way back about this. please see;

why do we not want to do TSE transmission studies on chimpanzees $
5. A positive result from a chimpanzee challenged severly would likely create alarm in some circles even if the result could not be interpreted for man. I have a view that all these agents could be transmitted provided a large enough dose by appropriate routes was given and the animals kept long enough. Until the mechanisms of the species barrier are more clearly understood it might be best to retain that hypothesis. 
 snip...

 R. BRADLEY


R Bradley

26 September 1990

90/9.26/3.2





I AM NOT AN ADVOCATE FOR EXPERIMENTAL USE OF CHIMPANZEES AS TEST VICTIMS. 

However, I would be an advocate for (and i have said this before over the years), of death row inmates being used. Their families could be compensated with a monetary award, and the death row inmates could do one final thing for the good of humanity. There going to die anyway. just my opinion. ...TSS-2011

SEE FULL TEXT ;



WEDNESDAY, APRIL 24, 2013

Chimpanzees Released After 30 Years Of Testing, Brace Yourself For Smiles


A VERY HEARTWARMING MOVING VIDEO...smiling and crying...TSS


Chimpanzees Released After 30 Years Of Testing. Brace Yourself For Smiles.

WEDNESDAY, APRIL 24, 2013

Chimpanzees Released After 30 Years Of Testing, Brace Yourself For Smiles


now see where we are at;

Title: Transmission of scrapie prions to primate after an extended silent incubation period)      
   
*** In complement to the recent demonstration that humanized mice are susceptible to scrapie, we report here the first observation of direct transmission of a natural classical scrapie isolate to a macaque after a 10-year incubation period. Neuropathologic examination revealed all of the features of a prion disease: spongiform change, neuronal loss, and accumulation of PrPres throughout the CNS.

 *** This observation strengthens the questioning of the harmlessness of scrapie to humans, at a time when protective measures for human and animal health are being dismantled and reduced as c-BSE is considered controlled and being eradicated.

 *** Our results underscore the importance of precautionary and protective measures and the necessity for long-term experimental transmission studies to assess the zoonotic potential of other animal prion strains.

SCRAPIE WS-01: Prion diseases in animals and zoonotic potential 2016

Prion. 10:S15-S21. 2016 ISSN: 1933-6896 printl 1933-690X online



 O.05: Transmission of prions to primates after extended silent incubation periods: Implications for BSE and scrapie risk assessment in human populations

 Emmanuel Comoy, Jacqueline Mikol, Valerie Durand, Sophie Luccantoni, Evelyne Correia, Nathalie Lescoutra, Capucine Dehen, and Jean-Philippe Deslys Atomic Energy Commission; Fontenay-aux-Roses, France

 Prion diseases (PD) are the unique neurodegenerative proteinopathies reputed to be transmissible under field conditions since decades. The transmission of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) to humans evidenced that an animal PD might be zoonotic under appropriate conditions. Contrarily, in the absence of obvious (epidemiological or experimental) elements supporting a transmission or genetic predispositions, PD, like the other proteinopathies, are reputed to occur spontaneously (atpical animal prion strains, sporadic CJD summing 80% of human prion cases). Non-human primate models provided the first evidences supporting the transmissibiity of human prion strains and the zoonotic potential of BSE. Among them, cynomolgus macaques brought major information for BSE risk assessment for human health (Chen, 2014), according to their phylogenetic proximity to humans and extended lifetime. We used this model to assess the zoonotic potential of other animal PD from bovine, ovine and cervid origins even after very long silent incubation periods.

 *** We recently observed the direct transmission of a natural classical scrapie isolate to macaque after a 10-year silent incubation period,

 ***with features similar to some reported for human cases of sporadic CJD, albeit requiring fourfold long incubation than BSE. Scrapie, as recently evoked in humanized mice (Cassard, 2014), 
 ***is the third potentially zoonotic PD (with BSE and L-type BSE),

 ***thus questioning the origin of human sporadic cases. We will present an updated panorama of our different transmission studies and discuss the implications of such extended incubation periods on risk assessment of animal PD for human health.

 ===============

***thus questioning the origin of human sporadic cases***

 ***our findings suggest that possible transmission risk of H-type BSE to sheep and human. Bioassay will be required to determine whether the PMCA products are infectious to these animals. 
  

From: TSS (216-119-163-189.ipset45.wt.net)
Subject: CWD aka MAD DEER/ELK TO HUMANS ???
Date: September 30, 2002 at 7:06 am PST
From: "Belay, Ermias"
To: Cc: "Race, Richard (NIH)" ; ; "Belay, Ermias"
Sent: Monday, September 30, 2002 9:22 AM
Subject: RE: TO CDC AND NIH - PUB MED- 3 MORE DEATHS - CWD - YOUNG HUNTERS
Dear Sir/Madam,
In the Archives of Neurology you quoted (the abstract of which was attached to your email), we did not say CWD in humans will present like variant CJD. That assumption would be wrong. I encourage you to read the whole article and call me if you have questions or need more clarification (phone: 404-639-3091). Also, we do not claim that "no-one has ever been infected with prion disease from eating venison." Our conclusion stating that we found no strong evidence of CWD transmission to humans in the article you quoted or in any other forum is limited to the patients we investigated.
Ermias Belay, M.D. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
-----Original Message-----
From: Sent: Sunday, September 29, 2002 10:15 AM
Subject: TO CDC AND NIH - PUB MED- 3 MORE DEATHS - CWD - YOUNG HUNTERS
Sunday, November 10, 2002 6:26 PM ......snip........end..............TSS
Thursday, April 03, 2008
A prion disease of cervids: Chronic wasting disease 2008 1: Vet Res. 2008 Apr 3;39(4):41 A prion disease of cervids: Chronic wasting disease Sigurdson CJ.
snip...
*** twenty-seven CJD patients who regularly consumed venison were reported to the Surveillance Center***,
snip... full text ;
CJD is so rare in people under age 30, one case in a billion (leaving out medical mishaps), that four cases under 30 is "very high," says Colorado neurologist Bosque. "Then, if you add these other two from Wisconsin [cases in the newspaper], six cases of CJD in people associated with venison is very, very high." Only now, with Mary Riley, there are at least seven, and possibly eight, with Steve, her dining companion. "It's not critical mass that matters," however, Belay says. "One case would do it for me." The chance that two people who know each other would both contact CJD, like the two Wisconsin sportsmen, is so unlikely, experts say, it would happen only once in 140 years.
 Given the incubation period for TSEs in humans, it may require another generation to write the final chapter on CWD in Wisconsin. "Does chronic wasting disease pass into humans? We'll be able to answer that in 2022," says Race. Meanwhile, the state has become part of an immense experiment.
I urge everyone to watch this video closely...terry 
*** you can see video here and interview with Jeff's Mom, and scientist telling you to test everything and potential risk factors for humans ***
PRION2016 CONFERENCE TOKYO UPDATED SCIENCE ON ZOONOSIS
*** The potential impact of prion diseases on human health was greatly magnified by the recognition that interspecies transfer of BSE to humans by beef ingestion resulted in vCJD. While changes in animal feed constituents and slaughter practices appear to have curtailed vCJD, there is concern that CWD of free-ranging deer and elk in the U.S. might also cross the species barrier. Thus, consuming venison could be a source of human prion disease. Whether BSE and CWD represent interspecies scrapie transfer or are newly arisen prion diseases is unknown. Therefore, the possibility of transmission of prion disease through other food animals cannot be ruled out. There is evidence that vCJD can be transmitted through blood transfusion. There is likely a pool of unknown size of asymptomatic individuals infected with vCJD, and there may be asymptomatic individuals infected with the CWD equivalent. These circumstances represent a potential threat to blood, blood products, and plasma supplies.
***********CJD REPORT 1994 increased risk for consumption of veal and venison and lamb***********

CREUTZFELDT JAKOB DISEASE SURVEILLANCE IN THE UNITED KINGDOM THIRD ANNUAL REPORT AUGUST 1994

Consumption of venison and veal was much less widespread among both cases and controls. For both of these meats there was evidence of a trend with increasing frequency of consumption being associated with increasing risk of CJD. (not nvCJD, but sporadic CJD...tss)

These associations were largely unchanged when attention was restricted to pairs with data obtained from relatives. ...

Table 9 presents the results of an analysis of these data.

There is STRONG evidence of an association between ‘’regular’’ veal eating and risk of CJD (p = .0.01).
Individuals reported to eat veal on average at least once a year appear to be at 13 TIMES THE RISK of individuals who have never eaten veal.

There is, however, a very wide confidence interval around this estimate. There is no strong evidence that eating veal less than once per year is associated with increased risk of CJD (p = 0.51).

The association between venison eating and risk of CJD shows similar pattern, with regular venison eating associated with a 9 FOLD INCREASE IN RISK OF CJD (p = 0.04).

There is some evidence that risk of CJD INCREASES WITH INCREASING FREQUENCY OF LAMB EATING (p = 0.02).

The evidence for such an association between beef eating and CJD is weaker (p = 0.14). When only controls for whom a relative was interviewed are included, this evidence becomes a little STRONGER (p = 0.08).

snip...

It was found that when veal was included in the model with another exposure, the association between veal and CJD remained statistically significant (p = < 0.05 for all exposures), while the other exposures ceased to be statistically significant (p = > 0.05).

snip...

In conclusion, an analysis of dietary histories revealed statistical associations between various meats/animal products and INCREASED RISK OF CJD. When some account was taken of possible confounding, the association between VEAL EATING AND RISK OF CJD EMERGED AS THE STRONGEST OF THESE ASSOCIATIONS STATISTICALLY. ...

snip...

In the study in the USA, a range of foodstuffs were associated with an increased risk of CJD, including liver consumption which was associated with an apparent SIX-FOLD INCREASE IN THE RISK OF CJD. By comparing the data from 3 studies in relation to this particular dietary factor, the risk of liver consumption became non-significant with an odds ratio of 1.2 (PERSONAL COMMUNICATION, PROFESSOR A. HOFMAN. ERASMUS UNIVERSITY, ROTTERDAM). (???...TSS)

snip...see full report ;

CJD9/10022

October 1994

Mr R.N. Elmhirst Chairman British Deer Farmers Association Holly Lodge Spencers Lane BerksWell Coventry

CV7 7BZ

Dear Mr Elmhirst,

CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB DISEASE (CJD) SURVEILLANCE UNIT REPORT

Thank you for your recent letter concerning the publication of the third annual report from the CJD Surveillance Unit. I am sorry that you are dissatisfied with the way in which this report was published.

The Surveillance Unit is a completely independant outside body and the Department of Health is committed to publishing their reports as soon as they become available. In the circumstances it is not the practice to circulate the report for comment since the findings of the report would not be amended. In future we can ensure that the British Deer Farmers Association receives a copy of the report in advance of publication.

The Chief Medical Officer has undertaken to keep the public fully informed of the results of any research in respect of CJD. This report was entirely the work of the unit and was produced completely independantly of the the Department.

The statistical results reqarding the consumption of venison was put into perspective in the body of the report and was not mentioned at all in the press release. Media attention regarding this report was low key but gave a realistic presentation of the statistical findings of the Unit. This approach to publication was successful in that consumption of venison was highlighted only once by the media ie. in the News at one television proqramme.
I believe that a further statement about the report, or indeed statistical links between CJD and consumption of venison, would increase, and quite possibly give damaging credence, to the whole issue. From the low key media reports of which I am aware it seems unlikely that venison consumption will suffer adversely, if at all.


CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD AND SCRAPIE TSE PRION ZOONOSIS UPDATE

*** WDA 2016 NEW YORK ***

We found that CWD adapts to a new host more readily than BSE and that human PrP was unexpectedly prone to misfolding by CWD prions. In addition, we investigated the role of specific regions of the bovine, deer and human PrP protein in resistance to conversion by prions from another species. We have concluded that the human protein has a region that confers unusual susceptibility to conversion by CWD prions.

Student Presentations Session 2

The species barriers and public health threat of CWD and BSE prions

Ms. Kristen Davenport1, Dr. Davin Henderson1, Dr. Candace Mathiason1, Dr. Edward Hoover1 1Colorado State University

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is spreading rapidly through cervid populations in the USA. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, mad cow disease) arose in the 1980s because cattle were fed recycled animal protein. These and other prion diseases are caused by abnormal folding of the normal prion protein (PrP) into a disease causing form (PrPd), which is pathogenic to nervous system cells and can cause subsequent PrP to misfold. CWD spreads among cervids very efficiently, but it has not yet infected humans. On the other hand, BSE was spread only when cattle consumed infected bovine or ovine tissue, but did infect humans and other species. The objective of this research is to understand the role of PrP structure in cross-species infection by CWD and BSE. To study the propensity of each species’ PrP to be induced to misfold by the presence of PrPd from verious species, we have used an in vitro system that permits detection of PrPd in real-time. We measured the conversion efficiency of various combinations of PrPd seeds and PrP substrate combinations. We observed the cross-species behavior of CWD and BSE, in addition to feline-adapted CWD and BSE. We found that CWD adapts to a new host more readily than BSE and that human PrP was unexpectedly prone to misfolding by CWD prions. In addition, we investigated the role of specific regions of the bovine, deer and human PrP protein in resistance to conversion by prions from another species. We have concluded that the human protein has a region that confers unusual susceptibility to conversion by CWD prions. CWD is unique among prion diseases in its rapid spread in natural populations. BSE prions are essentially unaltered upon passage to a new species, while CWD adapts to the new species. This adaptation has consequences for surveillance of humans exposed to CWD.

Wildlife Disease Risk Communication Research Contributes to Wildlife Trust Administration Exploring perceptions about chronic wasting disease risks among wildlife and agriculture professionals and stakeholders

PRION 2016 TOKYO

Zoonotic Potential of CWD Prions: An Update

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a widespread and highly transmissible prion disease in free-ranging and captive cervid species in North America. The zoonotic potential of CWD prions is a serious public health concern, but the susceptibility of human CNS and peripheral organs to CWD prions remains largely unresolved. We reported earlier that peripheral and CNS infections were detected in transgenic mice expressing human PrP129M or PrP129V. Here we will present an update on this project, including evidence for strain dependence and influence of cervid PrP polymorphisms on CWD zoonosis as well as the characteristics of experimental human CWD prions.

PRION 2016 TOKYO In Conjunction with Asia Pacific Prion Symposium 2016 PRION 2016 Tokyo Prion 2016

Cervid to human prion transmission

Kong, Qingzhong

Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, United States

Abstract

Prion disease is transmissible and invariably fatal. Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is the prion disease affecting deer, elk and moose, and it is a widespread and expanding epidemic affecting 22 US States and 2 Canadian provinces so far. CWD poses the most serious zoonotic prion transmission risks in North America because of huge venison consumption (>6 million deer/elk hunted and consumed annually in the USA alone), significant prion infectivity in muscles and other tissues/fluids from CWD-affected cervids, and usually high levels of individual exposure to CWD resulting from consumption of the affected animal among often just family and friends. However, we still do not know whether CWD prions can infect humans in the brain or peripheral tissues or whether clinical/asymptomatic CWD zoonosis has already occurred, and we have no essays to reliably detect CWD infection in humans. We hypothesize that:

(1) The classic CWD prion strain can infect humans at low levels in the brain and peripheral lymphoid tissues;

(2) The cervid-to-human transmission barrier is dependent on the cervid prion strain and influenced by the host (human) prion protein (PrP) primary sequence;

(3) Reliable essays can be established to detect CWD infection in humans;and

(4) CWD transmission to humans has already occurred. We will test these hypotheses in 4 Aims using transgenic (Tg) mouse models and complementary in vitro approaches.

Aim 1 will prove that the classical CWD strain may infect humans in brain or peripheral lymphoid tissues at low levels by conducting systemic bioassays in a set of "humanized" Tg mouse lines expressing common human PrP variants using a number of CWD isolates at varying doses and routes. Experimental "human CWD" samples will also be generated for Aim 3.

Aim 2 will test the hypothesis that the cervid-to-human prion transmission barrier is dependent on prion strain and influenced by the host (human) PrP sequence by examining and comparing the transmission efficiency and phenotypes of several atypical/unusual CWD isolates/strains as well as a few prion strains from other species that have adapted to cervid PrP sequence, utilizing the same panel of humanized Tg mouse lines as in Aim 1.
Aim 3 will establish reliable essays for detection and surveillance of CWD infection in humans by examining in details the clinical, pathological, biochemical and in vitro seeding properties of existing and future experimental "human CWD" samples generated from Aims 1-2 and compare them with those of common sporadic human Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) prions.

Aim 4 will attempt to detect clinical CWD-affected human cases by examining a significant number of brain samples from prion-affected human subjects in the USA and Canada who have consumed venison from CWD-endemic areas utilizing the criteria and essays established in Aim 3. The findings from this proposal will greatly advance our understandings on the potential and characteristics of cervid prion transmission in humans, establish reliable essays for CWD zoonosis and potentially discover the first case(s) of CWD infection in humans.
Public Health Relevance There are significant and increasing human exposure to cervid prions because chronic wasting disease (CWD, a widespread and highly infectious prion disease among deer and elk in North America) continues spreading and consumption of venison remains popular, but our understanding on cervid-to-human prion transmission is still very limited, raising public health concerns. This proposal aims to define the zoonotic risks of cervid prions and set up and apply essays to detect CWD zoonosis using mouse models and in vitro methods. The findings will greatly expand our knowledge on the potentials and characteristics of cervid prion transmission in humans, establish reliable essays for such infections and may discover the first case(s) of CWD infection in humans.

Key Molecular Mechanisms of TSEs

Zabel, Mark D.

Colorado State University-Fort Collins, Fort Collins, CO, United States Abstract Prion diseases, or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), are fatal neurodegenerative diseases affecting humans, cervids, bovids, and ovids. The absolute requirement of PrPC expression to generate prion diseases and the lack of instructional nucleic acid define prions as unique infectious agents. Prions exhibit species-specific tropism, inferring that unique prion strains exist that preferentially infct certain host species and confront transmission barriers to heterologous host species. However, transmission barriers are not absolute. Scientific consensus agrees that the sheep TSE scrapie probably breached the transmission barrier to cattle causing bovine spongiform encephalopathy that subsequently breached the human transmission barrier and likely caused several hundred deaths by a new-variant form of the human TSE Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the UK and Europe. The impact to human health, emotion and economies can still be felt in areas like farming, blood and organ donations and the threat of a latent TSE epidemic. This precedent raises the real possibility of other TSEs, like chronic wasting disease of cervids, overcoming similar human transmission barriers. A groundbreaking discovery made last year revealed that mice infected with heterologous prion strains facing significant transmission barriers replicated prions far more readily in spleens than brains6. Furthermore, these splenic prions exhibited weakened transmission barriers and expanded host ranges compared to neurogenic prions. These data question conventional wisdom of avoiding neural tissue to avoid prion xenotransmission, when more promiscuous prions may lurk in extraneural tissues. Data derived from work previously funded by NIH demonstrate that Complement receptors CD21/35 bind prions and high density PrPC and differentially impact prion disease depending on the prion isolate or strain used. Recent advances in live animal and whole organ imaging have led us to generate preliminary data to support novel, innovative approaches to assessing prion capture and transport. We plan to test our unifying hypothesis for this proposal that CD21/35 control the processes of peripheral prion capture, transport, strain selection and xenotransmission in the following specific aims. 1. Assess the role of CD21/35 in splenic prion strain selection and host range expansion. 2. Determine whether CD21/35 and C1q differentially bind distinct prion strains 3. Monitor the effects of CD21/35 on prion trafficking in real time and space 4.

Assess the role of CD21/35 in incunabular prion trafficking

Public Health Relevance Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, or prion diseases, are devastating illnesses that greatly impact public health, agriculture and wildlife in North America and around the world. The impact to human health, emotion and economies can still be felt in areas like farming, blood and organ donations and the threat of a latent TSE epidemic. This precedent raises the real possibility of other TSEs, like chronic wasting disease (CWD) of cervids, overcoming similar human transmission barriers. Early this year Canada reported its first case of BSE in over a decade audits first case of CWD in farmed elk in three years, underscoring the need for continued vigilance and research. Identifying mechanisms of transmission and zoonoses remains an extremely important and intense area of research that will benefit human and other animal populations.

PMCA Detection of CWD Infection in Cervid and Non-Cervid Species

Hoover, Edward Arthur

Colorado State University-Fort Collins, Fort Collins, CO, United States

LOOKING FOR CWD IN HUMANS AS nvCJD or as an ATYPICAL CJD, LOOKING IN ALL THE WRONG PLACES $$$

*** These results would seem to suggest that CWD does indeed have zoonotic potential, at least as judged by the compatibility of CWD prions and their human PrPC target. Furthermore, extrapolation from this simple in vitro assay suggests that if zoonotic CWD occurred, it would most likely effect those of the PRNP codon 129-MM genotype and that the PrPres type would be similar to that found in the most common subtype of sCJD (MM1).***


Monday, May 02, 2016

 *** Zoonotic Potential of CWD Prions: An Update Prion 2016 Tokyo ***

IF you value and you love the Cervid population across America. i urge you to listen, and act accordingly, with sound science.

Chronic Wasting Disease CWD Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy TSE Prion aka mad cow type disease in Cervid

the tse prion aka mad cow type disease is not your normal pathogen.

The TSE prion disease survives ashing to 600 degrees celsius, that’s around 1112 degrees farenheit.

you cannot cook the TSE prion disease out of meat. 

you can take the ash and mix it with saline and inject that ash into a mouse, and the mouse will go down with TSE.

Prion Infected Meat-and-Bone Meal Is Still Infectious after Biodiesel Production as well.

the TSE prion agent also survives Simulated Wastewater Treatment Processes.

IN fact, you should also know that the TSE Prion agent will survive in the environment for years, if not decades.
you can bury it and it will not go away.

The TSE agent is capable of infected your water table i.e. Detection of protease-resistant cervid prion protein in water from a CWD-endemic area.

it’s not your ordinary pathogen you can just cook it out and be done with.

that’s what’s so worrisome about Iatrogenic mode of transmission, a simple autoclave will not kill this TSE prion agent.

TITLE: PATHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE IN REINDEER AND DEMONSTRATION OF HORIZONTAL TRANSMISSION

*** DECEMBER 2016 CDC EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASE JOURNAL CWD HORIZONTAL TRANSMISSION

*** INFECTIOUS AGENT OF SHEEP SCRAPIE MAY PERSIST IN THE ENVIRONMENT FOR AT LEAST 16 YEARS ***
GUDMUNDUR GEORGSSON1, SIGURDUR SIGURDARSON2 AND PAUL BROWN3

Title: Pathological features of chronic wasting disease in reindeer and demonstration of horizontal transmission

 Using in vitro prion replication for high sensitive detection of prions and prionlike proteins and for understanding mechanisms of transmission.

Claudio Soto

Mitchell Center for Alzheimer's diseases and related Brain disorders, Department of Neurology, University of Texas Medical School at Houston.

***Recently, we have been using PMCA to study the role of environmental prion contamination on the horizontal spreading of TSEs. These experiments have focused on the study of the interaction of prions with plants and environmentally relevant surfaces. Our results show that plants (both leaves and roots) bind tightly to prions present in brain extracts and excreta (urine and feces) and retain even small quantities of PrPSc for long periods of time. Strikingly, ingestion of prioncontaminated leaves and roots produced disease with a 100% attack rate and an incubation period not substantially longer than feeding animals directly with scrapie brain homogenate. Furthermore, plants can uptake prions from contaminated soil and transport them to different parts of the plant tissue (stem and leaves). Similarly, prions bind tightly to a variety of environmentally relevant surfaces, including stones, wood, metals, plastic, glass, cement, etc. Prion contaminated surfaces efficiently transmit prion disease when these materials were directly injected into the brain of animals and strikingly when the contaminated surfaces were just placed in the animal cage. These findings demonstrate that environmental materials can efficiently bind infectious prions and act as carriers of infectivity, suggesting that they may play an important role in the horizontal transmission of the disease.


How to increase risk factors of introducing Chronic Wasting Disease CWD TSE prion disease into the wild white tail cervid population for dummies

*** TEXAS LEGISLATED CWD TSE PRION MORE INTO THEIR OWN DEER HERDS DURING THE 84TH LEGISLATURE ***

Texas 84th Legislative Session

Sunday, December 14, 2014

*** TEXAS 84th Legislature commencing this January, deer breeders are expected to advocate for bills that will seek to further deregulate their industry

TUESDAY, DECEMBER 16, 2014

Texas 84th Legislature 2015 H.R. No. 2597 Kuempel Deer Breeding Industry TAHC TPWD CWD TSE PRION

Wednesday, July 01, 2015

*** TEXAS Chronic Wasting Disease Detected in Medina County Captive Deer

Friday, April 22, 2016

*** Texas Scrapie Confirmed in a Hartley County Sheep where CWD was detected in a Mule Deer

Wednesday, May 04, 2016

TPWD proposes the repeal of §§65.90 -65.94 and new §§65.90 -65.99 Concerning Chronic Wasting Disease - Movement of Deer Singeltary Comment Submission

 Friday, July 01, 2016

*** TEXAS Thirteen new cases of chronic wasting disease (CWD) were confirmed at a Medina County captive white-tailed deer breeding facility on June 29, 2016

Wednesday, November 09, 2016

Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) Program Standards - Review and Comment By Terry S Singeltary Sr. November 9, 2016

Friday, November 18, 2016

IMPORTANT: SAWCorp CWD Test is NOT APHIS Approved

Thursday, December 08, 2016

TEXAS TAHC confirmed Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) in a free-ranging elk Dallam County

Saturday, December 03, 2016

*** TEXAS CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD TSE PRION UPDATE 35 CASES TO DATE

SUNDAY, JANUARY 22, 2017

Texas 85th Legislative Session 2017 Chronic Wasting Disease CWD TSE Prion Cervid Captive Breeder Industry

WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 25, 2017

Texas First Case of CWD Detected in Free-Ranging Texas Whitetail Surveillance Zone 3 in Medina County

THURSDAY, JANUARY 26, 2017

Texas CWD Discovered Free-Ranging Whitetail DEER Houston Chronicle Shannon Tompkins PLEASE, CAN YOU HEAR ME NOW?

FRIDAY, JANUARY 27, 2017 

TEXAS, Politicians, TAHC, TPWD, and the spread of CWD TSE Prion in Texas


FRIDAY, JANUARY 13, 2017 

Pennsylvania Deer Tests Positive for Chronic Wasting Disease four-year-old white-tailed deer Franklin County Hunting Preserve


FRIDAY, JANUARY 20, 2017 

MICHIGAN CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE IDENTIFIED IN TWO MECOSTA COUNTY FARMED DEER 


FRIDAY, JANUARY 20, 2017 

Minnesota Chronic Wasting Disease investigation traces exposure to Meeker County farm


THURSDAY, JANUARY 26, 2017 

IOWA DNR CONFIRMS 9 CASES CWD from hunter-harvested deer from near Harpers Ferry during the 2016 hunting seasons


MONDAY, JANUARY 23, 2017 

North Dakota Two Deer Test Positive for CWD


SATURDAY, JANUARY 14, 2017

*** CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD TSE PRION GLOBAL UPDATE JANUARY 14, 2017 ***


In summary, given the volume of tourists, hunters and servicemen moving between GB and North America, the probability of at least one person travelling to/from a CWD affected area and, in doing so, contaminating their clothing, footwear and/or equipment prior to arriving in GB is greater than negligible. For deer hunters, specifically, the risk is likely to be greater given the increased contact with deer and their environment. However, there is significant uncertainty associated with these estimates.

snip...

Therefore, it is considered that farmed and park deer may have a higher probability of exposure to CWD transferred to the environment than wild deer given the restricted habitat range and higher frequency of contact with tourists and returning GB residents.

snip...

What is the risk of chronic wasting disease being introduced into Great Britain? A Qualitative Risk Assessment October 2012


Thursday, April 07, 2016

What is the risk of chronic wasting disease being introduced into Great Britain? An updated Qualitative Risk Assessment March 2016


Subject: DEFRA What is the risk of a cervid TSE being introduced from Norway into Great Britain? Qualitative Risk Assessment September 2016

Friday, September 30, 2016

DEFRA What is the risk of a cervid TSE being introduced from Norway into Great Britain? Qualitative Risk Assessment September 2016



Scientific Opinion

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) in cervids

Authors

EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ),

First published: 18 January 2017Full publication history
DOI: 10.2903/j.efsa.2017.4667View/save citation



Prions in Skeletal Muscles of Deer with Chronic Wasting Disease

Rachel C. Angers1,*, Shawn R. Browning1,*,†, Tanya S. Seward2, Christina J. Sigurdson4,‡, Michael W. Miller5, Edward A. Hoover4, Glenn C. Telling1,2,3,§

snip...

Abstract The emergence of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in deer and elk in an increasingly wide geographic area, as well as the interspecies transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy to humans in the form of variant Creutzfeldt Jakob disease, have raised concerns about the zoonotic potential of CWD. Because meat consumption is the most likely means of exposure, it is important to determine whether skeletal muscle of diseased cervids contains prion infectivity.

***Here bioassays in transgenic mice expressing cervid prion protein revealed the presence of infectious prions in skeletal muscles of CWD-infected deer, demonstrating that humans consuming or handling meat from CWD-infected deer are at risk to prion exposure.


Transmission Studies

Mule deer transmissions of CWD were by intracerebral inoculation and compared with natural cases {the following was written but with a single line marked through it ''first passage (by this route)}...TSS
resulted in a more rapidly progressive clinical disease with repeated episodes of synocopy ending in coma. One control animal became affected, it is believed through contamination of inoculum (?saline). Further CWD transmissions were carried out by Dick Marsh into ferret, mink and squirrel monkey. Transmission occurred in ALL of these species with the shortest incubation period in the ferret.

snip...

Spongiform Encephalopathy in Captive Wild ZOO BSE INQUIRY

”The occurrence of CWD must be viewed against the contest of the locations in which it occurred. It was an incidental and unwelcome complication of the respective wildlife research programmes. Despite it’s subsequent recognition as a new disease of cervids, therefore justifying direct investigation, no specific research funding was forthcoming. The USDA veiwed it as a wildlife problem and consequently not their province!” page 26.

We inoculated cynomolgus macaques with serial dilutions of BSE-infected material. High dose-inoculated animals developed typical clinical disease with all the pathognomonic hallmarks, and incubation periods ranging from 3–8 years. Among low-dosed animals, some developed clinical signs with atypical patterns after extensive incubation periods, exhibiting lesion and biochemical profiles that differed sharply from the typical disease picture. Despite the presence of neurological signs and neuronal lesions, classical lesions of spongiosis and presence of cerebral PrPres were inconstant, or even absent. These observations suggest that low-dose exposure, which would have been the most frequent occurrence during the period of risk, could induce a non-typical pathology that may not be recognized as "prion disease."

link url not available, please see PRION 2011 ;

CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD AND SCRAPIE TSE PRION ZOONOSIS UPDATE

*** WDA 2016 NEW YORK ***

 We found that CWD adapts to a new host more readily than BSE and that human PrP was unexpectedly prone to misfolding by CWD prions. In addition, we investigated the role of specific regions of the bovine, deer and human PrP protein in resistance to conversion by prions from another species. We have concluded that the human protein has a region that confers unusual susceptibility to conversion by CWD prions.

 Student Presentations Session 2

 The species barriers and public health threat of CWD and BSE prions

 Ms. Kristen Davenport1, Dr. Davin Henderson1, Dr. Candace Mathiason1, Dr. Edward Hoover1 1Colorado State University

 Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is spreading rapidly through cervid populations in the USA. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, mad cow disease) arose in the 1980s because cattle were fed recycled animal protein. These and other prion diseases are caused by abnormal folding of the normal prion protein (PrP) into a disease causing form (PrPd), which is pathogenic to nervous system cells and can cause subsequent PrP to misfold. CWD spreads among cervids very efficiently, but it has not yet infected humans. On the other hand, BSE was spread only when cattle consumed infected bovine or ovine tissue, but did infect humans and other species. The objective of this research is to understand the role of PrP structure in cross-species infection by CWD and BSE. To study the propensity of each species’ PrP to be induced to misfold by the presence of PrPd from verious species, we have used an in vitro system that permits detection of PrPd in real-time. We measured the conversion efficiency of various combinations of PrPd seeds and PrP substrate combinations. We observed the cross-species behavior of CWD and BSE, in addition to feline-adapted CWD and BSE. We found that CWD adapts to a new host more readily than BSE and that human PrP was unexpectedly prone to misfolding by CWD prions. In addition, we investigated the role of specific regions of the bovine, deer and human PrP protein in resistance to conversion by prions from another species. We have concluded that the human protein has a region that confers unusual susceptibility to conversion by CWD prions. CWD is unique among prion diseases in its rapid spread in natural populations. BSE prions are essentially unaltered upon passage to a new species, while CWD adapts to the new species. This adaptation has consequences for surveillance of humans exposed to CWD.

Wildlife Disease Risk Communication Research Contributes to Wildlife Trust Administration Exploring perceptions about chronic wasting disease risks among wildlife and agriculture professionals and stakeholders

Axis Deer and CWD ?

Many of the regulations or proposed regulations cover only species known to be susceptible to CWD; however, it is not known whether some farmed exotic cervid species in North America, such as fallow deer (Dama dama), sika deer (Cervus nippon), or axis deer (Axis axis), are susceptible to CWD.


Wednesday, December 21, 2016

TRANSMISSION, DIFFERENTIATION, AND PATHOBIOLOGY OF TRANSMISSIBLE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHIES 2016 ANNUAL REPORT ARS RESEARCH


Monday, January 09, 2017

Oral Transmission of L-Type Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Agent among Cattle CDC Volume 23, Number 2—February 2017


SATURDAY, JUNE 12, 2010 

PUBLICATION REQUEST AND FOIA REQUEST Project Number: 3625-32000-086-05 Study of Atypical 

Bse 


*** TUESDAY, JANUARY 17, 2017 ***

*** FDA PART 589 -- SUBSTANCES PROHIBITED FROM USE IN ANIMAL FOOD OR FEEDVIOLATIONS OFFICIAL ACTION INDICATED OAI UPDATE 2016 to 2017 BSE TSE PRION





Monday, January 2, 2017

Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Induces Misfolding of Alleged Prion-Resistant Species Cellular Prion Protein without Altering Its Pathobiological Features

Articles, Neurobiology of Disease

WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 18, 2017 

EU-approved rapid tests might underestimate bovine spongiform encephalopathy infection in goats


MONDAY, JANUARY 16, 2017

*** APHIS Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE): Ongoing Surveillance Program Last Modified: Jan 5, 2017

SATURDAY, JULY 23, 2016 

BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY BSE TSE PRION SURVEILLANCE, TESTING, AND SRM REMOVAL UNITED STATE OF AMERICA UPDATE JULY 2016


Thursday, December 08, 2016

USDA APHIS National Scrapie Eradication Program October 2016 Monthly Report Fiscal Year 2017 atypical NOR-98 Scrapie


THURSDAY, AUGUST 4, 2016

Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health [Docket No. APHIS-2016-0046] TSE PRION DISEASE

 [Federal Register Volume 81, Number 149 (Wednesday, August 3, 2[Notices][Pages 51176-51177] From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office [www.gpo.gov] [FR Doc No: 2016-18341]


***our findings suggest that possible transmission risk of H-type BSE to sheep and human. 

Bioassay will be required to determine whether the PMCA products are infectious to these animals.

P.86: Estimating the risk of transmission of BSE and scrapie to ruminants and humans by protein misfolding cyclic amplification

Morikazu Imamura, Naoko Tabeta, Yoshifumi Iwamaru, and Yuichi Murayama

National Institute of Animal Health; Tsukuba, Japan

To assess the risk of the transmission of ruminant prions to ruminants and humans at the molecular level, we investigated the ability of abnormal prion protein (PrPSc) of typical and atypical BSEs (L-type and H-type) and typical scrapie to convert normal prion protein (PrPC) from bovine, ovine, and human to proteinase K-resistant PrPSc-like form (PrPres) using serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA).

Six rounds of serial PMCA was performed using 10% brain homogenates from transgenic mice expressing bovine, ovine or human PrPC in combination with PrPSc seed from typical and atypical BSE- or typical scrapie-infected brain homogenates from native host species. In the conventional PMCA, the conversion of PrPC to PrPres was observed only when the species of PrPC source and PrPSc seed matched. However, in the PMCA with supplements (digitonin, synthetic polyA and heparin), both bovine and ovine PrPC were converted by PrPSc from all tested prion strains. On the other hand, human PrPC was converted by PrPSc from typical and H-type BSE in this PMCA condition.

Although these results were not compatible with the previous reports describing the lack of transmissibility of H-type BSE to ovine and human transgenic mice, our findings suggest that possible transmission risk of H-type BSE to sheep and human. Bioassay will be required to determine whether the PMCA products are infectious to these animals.

P.170: Potential detection of oral transmission of H type atypical BSE in cattle using in vitro conversion

***P.170: Potential detection of oral transmission of H type atypical BSE in cattle using in vitro conversion

Sandor Dudas, John G Gray, Renee Clark, and Stefanie Czub Canadian Food Inspection Agency; Lethbridge, AB Canada

Keywords: Atypical BSE, oral transmission, RT-QuIC

The detection of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) has had a significant negative impact on the cattle industry worldwide. In response, governments took actions to prevent transmission and additional threats to animal health and food safety. While these measures seem to be effective for controlling classical BSE, the more recently discovered atypical BSE has presented a new challenge. To generate data for risk assessment and control measures, we have challenged cattle orally with atypical BSE to determine transmissibility and mis-folded prion (PrPSc) tissue distribution. Upon presentation of clinical symptoms, animals were euthanized and tested for characteristic histopathological changes as well as PrPSc deposition.

The H-type challenged animal displayed vacuolation exclusively in rostral brain areas but the L-type challenged animal showed no evidence thereof. To our surprise, neither of the animals euthanized, which were displaying clinical signs indicative of BSE, showed conclusive mis-folded prion accumulation in the brain or gut using standard molecular or immunohistochemical assays. To confirm presence or absence of prion infectivity, we employed an optimized real-time quaking induced conversion (RT-QuIC) assay developed at the Rocky Mountain Laboratory, Hamilton, USA.

Detection of PrPSc was unsuccessful for brain samples tests from the orally inoculated L type animal using the RT-QuIC. It is possible that these negative results were related to the tissue sampling locations or that type specific optimization is needed to detect PrPSc in this animal. We were however able to consistently detect the presence of mis-folded prions in the brain of the H-type inoculated animal. Considering the negative and inconclusive results with other PrPSc detection methods, positive results using the optimized RT-QuIC suggests the method is extremely sensitive for H-type BSE detection. This may be evidence of the first successful oral transmission of H type atypical BSE in cattle and additional investigation of samples from these animals are ongoing.



TUESDAY, JANUARY 17, 2017 

FDA PART 589 -- SUBSTANCES PROHIBITED FROM USE IN ANIMAL FOOD OR FEEDVIOLATIONS OFFICIAL ACTION INDICATED OAI UPDATE 2016 to 2017 BSE TSE PRION


CRAPIE WS-01: Prion diseases in animals and zoonotic potential 2016

Prion. 10:S15-S21. 2016 ISSN: 1933-6896 printl 1933-690X online

Tuesday, July 21, 2009

Transmissible mink encephalopathy - review of the etiology

Saturday, December 01, 2007

Phenotypic Similarity of Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy in Cattle and L-type Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy in a Mouse Model

Sunday, December 10, 2006

Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy TME

Saturday, June 25, 2011

Transmissibility of BSE-L and Cattle-Adapted TME Prion Strain to Cynomolgus Macaque

"BSE-L in North America may have existed for decades"

Wednesday, April 25, 2012

4th MAD COW DISEASE U.S.A. CALIFORNIA ATYPICAL L-TYPE BSE 2012

Thursday, October 22, 2015

Former Ag Secretary Ann Veneman talks women in agriculture and we talk mad cow disease USDA and what really happened

Thursday, July 24, 2014

Protocol for further laboratory investigations into the distribution of infectivity of Atypical BSE SCIENTIFIC REPORT OF EFSA

Discussion: The C, L and H type BSE cases in Canada exhibit molecular characteristics similar to those described for classical and atypical BSE cases from Europe and Japan.

*** This supports the theory that the importation of BSE contaminated feedstuff is the source of C-type BSE in Canada.

*** It also suggests a similar cause or source for atypical BSE in these countries. ***

see page 176 of 201 pages...tss

*** Singeltary reply ; Molecular, Biochemical and Genetic Characteristics of BSE in Canada Singeltary reply ;

Wednesday, July 15, 2015

Additional BSE TSE prion testing detects pathologic lesion in unusual brain location and PrPsc by PMCA only, how many cases have we missed?

***however in 1 C-type challenged animal, Prion 2015 Poster Abstracts S67 PrPsc was not detected using rapid tests for BSE.

***Subsequent testing resulted in the detection of pathologic lesion in unusual brain location and PrPsc detection by PMCA only.

*** IBNC Tauopathy or TSE Prion disease, it appears, no one is sure ***

Posted by Terry S. Singeltary Sr. on 03 Jul 2015 at 16:53 GMT

Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease CJD

Diagnosis and Reporting of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

Singeltary, Sr et al. JAMA.2001; 285: 733-734. Vol. 285 No. 6, February 14, 2001 JAMA

Diagnosis and Reporting of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

To the Editor: In their Research Letter, Dr Gibbons and colleagues1 reported that the annual US death rate due to Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) has been stable since 1985. These estimates, however, are based only on reported cases, and do not include misdiagnosed or preclinical cases. It seems to me that misdiagnosis alone would drastically change these figures. An unknown number of persons with a diagnosis of Alzheimer disease in fact may have CJD, although only a small number of these patients receive the postmortem examination necessary to make this diagnosis. Furthermore, only a few states have made CJD reportable. Human and animal transmissible spongiform encephalopathies should be reportable nationwide and internationally.

Terry S. Singeltary, Sr Bacliff, Tex

1. Gibbons RV, Holman RC, Belay ED, Schonberger LB. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the United States: 1979-1998. JAMA. 2000;284:2322-2323.

Evidence That Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy Results from Feeding Infected Cattle
Over the next 8-10 weeks, approximately 40% of all the adult mink on the farm died from TME.

snip...

The rancher was a ''dead stock'' feeder using mostly (>95%) downer or dead dairy cattle...

In Confidence - Perceptions of unconventional slow virus diseases of animals in the USA - APRIL-MAY 1989 - G A H Wells

3. Prof. A. Robertson gave a brief account of BSE. The US approach was to accord it a very low profile indeed. 

Dr. A Thiermann showed the picture in the ''Independent'' with cattle being incinerated and thought this was a fanatical incident to be avoided in the US at all costs. ...

The occurrence of CWD must be viewed against the contest of the locations in which it occurred. It was an incidental and unwelcome complication of the respective wildlife research programmes. Despite it’s subsequent recognition as a new disease of cervids, therefore justifying direct investigation, no specific research funding was forthcoming. The USDA veiwed it as a wildlife problem and consequently not their province! ...page 26.

*** Spraker suggested an interesting explanation for the occurrence of CWD. The deer pens at the Foot Hills 
Campus were built some 30-40 years ago by a Dr. Bob Davis. At or abut that time, allegedly, some scrapie work was conducted at this site. When deer were introduced to the pens they occupied ground that had previously been occupied by sheep.

SPONTANEOUS ATYPICAL BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY

***Moreover, sporadic disease has never been observed in breeding colonies or primate research laboratories, most notably among hundreds of animals over several decades of study at the National Institutes of Health25, and in nearly twenty older animals continuously housed in our own facility.***

Primate Biol., 3, 47–50, 2016 www.primate-biol.net/3/47/2016/ doi:10.5194/pb-3-47-2016 © Author(s) 2016. 

CC

Attribution 3.0 License.

Prions

Walter Bodemer German Primate Center, Kellnerweg 4, 37077 Göttingen, Germany Correspondence to: Walter Bodemer (wbodemer@dpz.eu)

Received: 15 June 2016 – Revised: 24 August 2016 – Accepted: 30 August 2016 – Published: 7 September 2016

SNIP...

 3 Conclusion

Most importantly, early signs of an altered circadian rhythm, sleep–wake cycle, and activity and body temperature were recorded in prion-infected animals. This experimental approach would have never been feasible in studies with human CJD cases. After 4–6 years animals developed clinical symptoms highly similar to those typical for CJD. Clinicians confirmed how close the animal model and the human disease matched. Non-neuronal tissue like cardiac muscle and peripheral blood with abnormal, disease-related prion protein were detected in rhesus monkey tissues.

Molecular changes in RNA from repetitive Alu and BC200 DNA elements were identified and found to be targets of epigenetic editing mechanisms active in prion disease. To conclude, our results with the rhesus monkey model for prion disease proved to be a valid model and increased our knowledge of pathogenic processes that are distinctive to prion disease.

 SEE FULL TEXT ;



kindest regards, 

Terry S. Singeltary Sr.
P.O. Box 42
Bacliff, Texas USA 77518

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